Short Paper #2

Instructions – Short Paper #2: Outline

Sample Paper 2- Outline

Read Paper #2: Final Draft instructions below and submit via Blackboard:

-a captioned image of the selected work of art following this format: Figure #. Author, Title of the work in italics, year. Medium, dimensions. Collection.
-working thesis
-a rough outline of the main ideas of your body paragraphs
-one fully developed persuasive paragraph
annotated bibliography

Make sure to research and outline your essay simultaneously!

*you must follow the structure and the style guide, particularly italicizing and captioning, explained in the Paper #2: Final Draft instructions.


Instructions – Short Paper #2: Final Draft

Sample Paper 2- Final Draft

The purpose of this assignment is to help you analyze art using Iconography/Iconology. Select any work from the list below and write a 3-5 page paper applying Panofsky’s 3-step analysis (submit via Blackboard). This paper must be based on your graded Paper #2: Outline. Feel free to select a work of art by yourself, but make sure you can apply Iconographical/Iconological analysis and find reliable sources.

Abu’l Qasim Firdausi, Bahram Gur Pins the Coupling Onagers, ca. 1530–35. Folio 568r from the Shahnama (Book of Kings) of Shah Tahmasp. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Gallery 462)

Nicolas Poussin, Midas Washing at the Source of the Pactolus, ca. 1627. Oil on Canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Gallery 617)

Charles Cromwell Ingham, The Flower Girl, 1846. Oil on canvas, 36 x 28 3/8 in. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Gallery 756)

Perugino (Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci), The Resurrection, c. 1499. Tempera on wood, 10 5/8 x 18 in. (27 x 45.7 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Gallery  603).


Methodology refers to a strategic selection and use of sources in establishing a point of an essay and determining arguments when analyzing works of art. Primary sources include works of art, diary entries, letters or other sources of information that were created at the time under study. Secondary sources are usually scholarly books or articles that were created by authors who did not have an immediate experience of events or other information under study. Tertiary sources refer to indexes of secondary and/or primary sources.

Iconography is a method that focuses on content (the meaning of the subject matter) rather than on its form. It interprets the function and purpose of the selected artwork (such as the meanings of motifs, signs, and symbols used in the work). Erwin Panofsky championed the method and devised three stages of its application:

  1. describing the work of art using formal elements
  2. identifying the described elements using sources (usually texts)
  3. interpreting the symbolism of identified elements using more sources


This paper requires research. You need to look up books, articles, and/or reliable websites and select at least six reputable sources. You will then compile them all into a bibliography. You should examine the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s website. You should also search for information using the CCNY library databases including CUNY+, JSTOR, Art Full Text, etc. You may also search through Google Scholar.  To properly select sources for your paper, please consult – Guptill, Amy. “Secondary Sources in Their Natural Habitats.” In Writing in College: From Competence to Excellence.College at Brockport, SUNY: Open SUNY Textbooks. Accessed July 3, 2018. https://milnepublishing.geneseo.edu/writing-in-college-from-competence-to-excellence/chapter/secondary-sources-in-their-natural-habitats/ 
*You cannot use Wikipedia or non-academic websites.


This essay should convince a reader of your interpretation of the work.


You should start your introductory paragraph by providing basic information about the work of art (include the full title (italicized), the name of the author, the year and place of creation, and other relevant details, such as medium and style). Then, introduce the context within which you place the chosen artwork. Finish with the thesis statement that contains a frame of reference (claim) and a list of arguments discussed in the body of your essay.


Make sure that each body paragraph develops only one idea! For this essay, the first body paragraph will be descriptive (provide a detailed visual description of the chose work of art (use the terms that you learned in class) and the rest will be persuasive. Persuasive paragraphs will help you develop your arguments. A persuasive paragraph has the following layout:
A TOPIC SENTENCE communicates the main idea of the paragraph. EVIDENCE refers to factual information relevant to the paragraph’s main idea (it must be cited). EVALUATION explains how the main idea of this paragraph relates to the main point of your essay or the frame of reference stated in your thesis. A CONCLUDING SENTENCE clearly states your point about the idea you are developing in the context of your thesis.
Body paragraph #1 [descriptive]
Body paragraph #2 [persuasive]
Body paragraph #3 [persuasive]
Body paragraph #4 [persuasive]


Restate your thesis and summarize your points made in concluding sentences in your body paragraphs.


-Always italicize titles of works of art
-Use Simple Past tense to describe the artist’s actions, e.g., Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa in the early 1500s. The art object is usually discussed in Simple Present tense, e.g., the painting shows a half-length portrait of a mysterious woman.
-Include images of art objects and capture them properly following this model:
Figure #. Author, Title of the work in italics, year. Medium, dimensions. Collection.
Figure 1. Nancy Graves, Dingbat, 1988. Cast, patinated bronze with painted elements, 8’ 5” x 34” x 6’ 2” (243.8 x 86.3 x 188 cm). Private collection.

Notes and Bibliography

You must use proper footnotes or endnotes, following the Chicago Manual of Style. On a separate sheet of paper, you must also write a bibliography. Failure to cite or name your sources is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade. For the proper style of notes and bibliography, visit https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20180216124500_717_11.pdf
Be aware that The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide explicit guidelines for citing information from museum labels, yet, this type of information must be cited. Below is a sample for you to follow:
Note:1. Museum label for Vincent van Gogh, Olive Trees, 1889, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 28 January 2011.
Bibliography: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Museum label for Vincent van Gogh. Olive Trees, 1889. New York, 28 January 2011.
*Information on museum labels changes, so it is often a good idea to provide the date when you accessed the information.


Lee, Rensselaer W. “Erwin Panofsky.” Art Journal 27, no. 4 (1968): 368-70. http://www.jstor.org/stable/775134.

Mustemberg, Marjorie. “Iconographic Analysis.” In Writing About Art. Accessed June 7, 2018. http://writingaboutart.org/pages/iconographicanalysis.html

Pigler, Andrew. “The Importance of Iconographical Exactitude.” The Art Bulletin 21, no. 3 (1939): 228-37.  www.jstor.org/stable/3046640