Short Paper #3 old

Instructions – Paper #3: Outline

Sample Paper 3- Outline

Read Paper #3: Final Draft instructions below and submit via Blackboard:

-captioned images of the selected works of art,
-a working thesis,
-a rough outline of the main ideas of your body paragraphs and arrange them either point-by-point or block-by-block,
-one fully developed section of the body of your essay,
-annotated bibliography.

*you must follow the structure and the style guide, particularly italicizing and captioning, explained in the Paper #3: Final Draft instructions.

Instructions – Paper #3: Final Draft

Sample Paper 3- Final Draft

The purpose of this assignment is to help you organize a focused compare and contrast essay. You will practice analyzing sculpture through a particular frame of reference (context), which can be an idea, theme, question, problem, theory, etc.

You will need to write a comparative analysis of two sculptures in a 3-5 page long, typed, and double-spaced essay (submit via Blackboard). You may choose from the pairings I provided below. I paired the sculptures to help you with the frame of reference, but it will be your job to define it. If you do not feel inspired by the suggested choices, feel free to come up with a pairing of your own. This assignment must be based on the graded outline.

You are encouraged to go to the Metropolitan Museum of Art and look at all six sculptures. I have given you gallery locations to help you out. Once you have found all six, pick the pair that you like best. This paper must be based on your graded Paper #3: Outline.

Figure 1. Isamu Noguchi, Kouros, 1945. Marble 117 x 297 3/16 in. (297.2 x 754.9 cm). © 2018 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.
[On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 920]
Figure 2. Marble Statue of a Kouros (Youth), 590–580 B.C. Marble, 76 5/8 × 20 5/16 × 24 7/8 in. (194.6 × 51.6 × 63.2 cm). Fletcher Fund, 1932. [On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 154]

Figure 1. Kiki Smith, Lilith, 1994. Bronze with glass eyes, 31 1/2 x 27 x 17 1/2in. (80 x 68.6 x 44.5cm). Purchase, Roy R., and Marie S. Neuberger Foundation Inc. Gift, 1996. [On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 920]
Figure 2. Enthroned Virgin, ca. 1175–1200. Poplar with paint, 33 15/16 x 8 x 7 in. (86.2 x 20.3 x 17.8 cm). Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan. [On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 304]

Figure 1. Balthasar Permoser, Marsyas, ca. 1680–85. Marble, H. 27 x W. 17 3/8 x D. 11 1/8 in. (68.6 x 44.1 x 28.3 cm). Rogers Fund and Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 2002. [On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 548]
Figure 2. Head of Christ, late 15th–early 16th century. Limestone, traces of wood thorns, 9 9/16 x 10 1/2 x 9 1/8in. (24.3 x 26.7 x 23.2cm). Purchase, Rogers Fund; Gifts of J. Pierpont Morgan, George Blumenthal, and Duveen Brothers, by exchange; Bequests of George Blumenthal, Michael Dreicer, Theodore M. Davis and Anne D. Thomson, by exchange; and Mr. and Mrs. Maxime L. Hermanos Gift, 1983. [On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 306]



Formalism, Iconography
Methodology refers to a strategic selection and use of sources in establishing a point of an essay and determining arguments when analyzing works of art. Sources can be primary (works of art, diary entries, letters or other sources of information that were created at the time under study). Secondary sources are usually scholarly books or articles that were created by authors who did not have an immediate experience of events or other information under study. Tertiary sources refer to indexes of secondary and/or primary sources.

Formalism – stresses the significance of form over content. This method utilizes discussion of formal elements that include: line, shape, space, color, light, and dark; balance, order, proportion, pattern, and rhythm; the final arrangement made by the artist is called the composition.

Iconography – focuses on content (the meaning of the subject matter) rather than on form. It interprets the function and purpose of the selected pieces (such as the meanings of motifs, signs, and symbols used in the work). This method includes three stages:

  1. describing the work of art using formal elements
  2. identifying the described elements using sources (usually texts)
  3. interpreting the symbolism of identified elements using more sources



This paper requires research. You need to look up books, articles, and/or reliable websites and select at least six reputable sources. You will then compile them all into a bibliography. You should examine the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s website. You should also search for information using the CCNY library databases including CUNY+, JSTOR, Art Full Text, etc. You may also search through Google Scholar.  To properly select sources for your paper, please consult – Guptill, Amy. “Secondary Sources in Their Natural Habitats.” In Writing in College: From Competence to Excellence.College at Brockport, SUNY: Open SUNY Textbooks. Accessed July 3, 2018. 
*You cannot use Wikipedia or non-academic websites.


Kerry Walk from Writing Center at Harvard University pointed out that a compare and contrast essay is not just a mechanical exercise in which you first state all the features that A and B have in common, and then state all the ways in which A and B are different. She continued that the compare and contrast essay should make a point or serve a purpose. This is the context within which you place the two artworks you plan to compare and contrast; “it is the umbrella under which you have grouped them.”¹ In class, we referred to such a point as a claim (or a frame of reference). It should be clearly stated in your thesis.


You should start your introductory paragraph by providing basic information about each work of art (include the full title (italicized), the name of the author, the year and place of creation, and other relevant details, such as medium and style). Then, introduce the context within which you place the two things you plan to analyze. Finish with the thesis statement that contains a frame of reference (claim) and a list of arguments discussed in the body of your essay.


Make sure that each body paragraph develops only one idea! For this essay, the first two body paragraphs will be descriptive and the rest will be expository. Expository paragraphs will help you develop your arguments. An expository paragraph has the following layout:
A TOPIC SENTENCE communicates the main idea of the paragraph. EVIDENCE refers to factual information relevant to the paragraph’s main idea (it must be cited). EVALUATION explains how the main idea of this paragraph relates to the main point of your essay or the frame of reference stated in your thesis. A CONCLUDING SENTENCE clearly states your point about the idea you are developing in the context of your thesis.

Since you are writing a compare and contrast essay, you need to arrange your expository paragraphs in sections or groups of paragraphs with similar main ideas. There are two basic ways to organize the body of your paper:
-In block-by-block you discuss all of A, then all of B
-In point-by-point, you alternate points about A with comparable points about B

The point-by-point method is used in the outline below:

Section 1

Body paragraph #1 [descriptive]
Provide a detailed visual description of the first sculpture. Use terms, such as mass, volume, balance, symmetry/asymmetry, proportions, and/or scale.
Body paragraph #2 [descriptive]
Provide a detailed visual description of the second sculpture.

Section 2

It contains body paragraphs #3 and #4 and develops argument 1 [Each argument should be a detail (or a visual element) seen in the artworks]. Write persuasive body paragraphs for each argument that you announced in your thesis. Make sure that you discuss each argument in relation to both works of art.

Body paragraph #3 [expository] – main idea: argument 1, e.g., posture in relation to the 1st work of art
Topic sentence:_________________________[introduce the main idea of this paragraph].
Evidence 1: ________________________________ [describe the visual element as seen in the work of art].
Evidence 2:_________________________________________[Use appropriate evidence and cite it].
Analysis:____________________[explain how the main idea of this paragraph relates to your claim].
Concluding sentence:______________________________[summarize the analysis].

Body paragraph #4 [expository] – main idea: argument 1, e.g., posture in relation to the 2nd work of art
Topic sentence:_________________________[introduce the main idea of this paragraph].
Evidence 1: ________________________________ [describe the visual element as seen in the work of art].
Evidence 2:_________________________________________[Use appropriate evidence and cite it].
Analysis____________________[explain how the evidence stated above relate to your claim and explain how the main idea of this paragraph relates to your thesis; compare it to the result of your analysis from the previous paragraph. Write as many sentences as you need to answer all these questions].
Concluding sentence:______________________________[summarize your discussion].

Section 3

It contains body paragraphs #5 and #6 and develops argument 2 [see previous section]


Restate your thesis and summarize your points made in concluding sentences in your body paragraphs.



Always italicize titles of works of art
Use Simple Past tense to describe the artist’s actions, e.g., Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa in the early 1500s. The art object is usually discussed in Simple Present tense, e.g., the painting shows a half-length portrait of a mysterious woman.
Include images of art objects and capture them properly following this model:
Figure #. Author, Title of the work in italics, year. Medium, dimensions. Collection.
Figure 1. Nancy Graves, Dingbat, 1988. Cast, patinated bronze with painted elements, 8’ 5” x 34” x 6’ 2” (243.8 x 86.3 x 188 cm). Private collection.

Notes and Bibliography

You must use proper footnotes or endnotes, following the Chicago Manual of Style. On a separate sheet of paper, you must also write a bibliography. Failure to cite or name your sources is plagiarism and will result in a failing grade. For the proper style of notes and bibliography, you may see my handout.

Be aware that The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide explicit guidelines for citing information from museum labels, yet, this type of information must be cited. Below is a sample for you to follow:

Note:1. Museum label for Vincent van Gogh, Olive Trees, 1889, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 28 January 2011.
Bibliography: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Museum label for Vincent van Gogh. Olive Trees, 1889. New York, 28 January 2011.

*Information on museum labels changes, so it is often a good idea to provide the date when you accessed the information.


Kerry Walk, “How to Write a Comparative Analysis,” the Writing Center at Harvard University, accessed July 18, 2017, 

Getlein, Mark. “Three-dimensional Media – Sculpture and Installation.” In Living with Art, 237-269. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2009. (available on Blackboard)

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